1700 | 1714 - 1724 - Fahrenheit mercury thermometer
1742 - Celsius thermometer scale wiki |
1800 | |
1810 | 1814 - Fraunhofer invented the modern spectroscope
1818 - Ernst Ferdinand August coined the term psychrometer |
1820 | 1825 - August equation
1828 paper - paywalled in German
1827 - Joseph Fourier recognized that the atmosphere makes the Earth warmer than expected via blackbody radiation equations |
1830 | |
1840 | 1844 - Magnus equation 1844 paper - paywalled in German |
1850 | 1850 -
the Clausius-Clapeyron relation
1859 - John Tyndall measured the ability of gasses to absorb IR radiation and studied their spectra wiki |
1860 | 1862 - Gustav Kirchhoff coined the term black-body radiation |
1870 | |
1880 | 1883 - Krakatoa volcano erupts
1884 - Stefan-Boltzmann constant, P = ε σ T^{4} 1888 - Antoine equation |
1890 | 1896 - Svante Arrhenius calculated how much increased CO2 might effect the Earth's temperature
ΔF = a ln(C/Co)
wiki
1898 - Léon Teisserenc de Bort (France) and Richard Assmann (Germany) discover the tropopause via balloon and name it the stratosphere |
1900 | 1900 - Max Planck produced the black body equation
1902 - Léon Teisserenc de Bort reports his discovery to the French Academy of Sciences Three days later Richard Assmann reports his discovery to the German Academy of Science 1905 - Albert Einstein - Special relativity, E = mc^{2} |
1910 | |
1920 |
1927 - International Temperature Scale of 1927 (ITS-27)
1929 - The calorie was defined to be 4.1868 joules exact. This definition is still in use. |
1930 | 1930 - The calorie was defined to be 4.1833 joules exact.
1930 - Teten formulation Lowe 74 - reformulated by Murry in 1967 |
1940 | 1946 - Goff Gratch formulation
Voemel - 2003
1948 - International Temperature Scale of 1948 (ITS-48) Degree Centigrade was officially replaced with degree Celsius 1948 - The calorie was redefined to be 4.184 joules exact because other units changed. |
1950 | 1951 - Smithsonian Meteorological Tables
1955 - The temperature scale was changed - the triple point of water was changed from 0.0°C exact to 0.01°C exact. 1957 - WMO_Goff formulation - has a sign error corrected in 2000 Voemel 2016 |
1960 | 1960 - C-12 became the standard for defining a mole, which affected Avogadro's number and the gas constant.
1967 - Magnus Teten formulation via Murray Voemel - 2003 1968 - New temperature scale - International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS- 68 scale) Changed degree Kelvin to kelvin and replaced °K with K |
1970 | 1971 - Smithsonian Meteorological Tables
1971 - Richards formulation Lowe77 eq7 paywalled 1973 - Tabata formulation Lowe 77 eq3&4 1974 - The Computation of Saturation Vapor Pressure - Paul R. Lowe 1975 - The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Subcommittee on Calibration and Test Materials 1976 - Some standard specifies that saturation is 6.11657 mbar at the triple point Murphy and Koop, 2005 1976 - Wexler formulation Murphy and Koop, 2006 1976 - An Approximating Polynomial for the Computation of Saturated Vapor Pressure - Paul R. Lowe 1977 - Equations for the Determination of Humidity from Dewpoint and Psychrometric Data NASA Tech Note D-8401 |
1980 | 1980 - Bolton formulation
Voemel - 2003
1981 - New Equations for Computing Vapor Pressure and Enhancement Factor, 1981 - Buck original formulation Voemel - 2003 1983 - Hyland and Wexler formulation Voemel - 2003 1985 - MODTRAN version 3 |
1990 | 1990 - The
International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)
1993 - Marti Mauersberger formulation Voemel - 2003 1994 - Sonntag formulation (ITS-90) Voemel - 2003 1995 - IAPWS Voemel 2016 1996 - Buck manual formulation - updated Voemel - 2003 1996 - Improved Magnus Form Approximation of Saturation Vapor Pressure Alduchov (Ru) and Eskridge (US) Early typewritten version - 1997 1998 - Hardy Voemel 2016 |
2000 | 2000 - WMO formulation
Voemel - 2003
2002 - Preining formulation Voemel 2016 source code 2003 - Saturation vapor pressure formulations, Voemel - 2003, list of 14 formulations 2003 - Fukuta formulation Voemel 2016 source code 2005 - Murphy and Koop Voemel 2016 2005 - JPL - Uses 6.108 mbar at 0°C for saturation 2006 - Review of the vapour pressures of ice and supercooled water for atmospheric applications, Murphy and Koop 2006 - Seinfeld & Pandis formulation (text book) 2007 - IPCC AR4 - The Physical Science Basis 2008 - CIMO / WMO Voemel 2016 |
2010 |
2013 -
Humidity Conversion Formulas
- Vaisala
2016 - Saturation vapor pressure formulations, Voemel 2016, list of 21 formulations, plus a few in the source code |
2020 |
WMO - World Meteorological Organization
Voemel is listed twice (2003 and 2016) as a reference to indicate how the document expanded over time. I have not included the dates between those.
I have included 2 links for Improved Magnus Form Approximation of Saturation Vapor Pressure, Alduchov (Ru) and Eskridge (US) 1996 abstract and 1997 (typewritten) abstract. The abstract and some of the text is different, but they have the same title and they are basically the same paper. I have no idea why the typed version has a later date than the journal article. Table 1 in the typed version (not in the other paper) appears to be wrong.